NEWS SITUATION TRACKING – NIGERIA CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC IN NIGERIA Vol. 7
Issue: 135 confirmed cases, 8 recoveries and 2 deaths following the outbreak of COVID19.
Date: MARCH 31, 2020. COMMUNITY PROFILING CRITICAL STAKEHOLDERS INCIDENT PROFILING
Population: Nigeria has a population of over 200,963,5991 .
Basic Demography and Geography of Hotspots: Nigeria shares land borders with the Republic of Benin, Chad, Cameroun, Niger and the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean. The country has 36 States and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). There are 774 Local Government Areas (LGA’s) divided across six (6) geo-political zones.
Ethnicity: Nigeria has over 250 ethnic groups with Hausa-Fulani, Igbo, Yoruba 2 in the majority.
Nigeria Health Facilities: There are over 20,807 health facilities including Primary Health Centres (2019 est). The healthcare infrastructures are inadequate compared to the population base. The 2020 budget allocation of 427.30 billion accounts for an estimated 4.14% of the proposed
Direct Actors: Community residents.
Affected Persons: Residents of Abuja-FCT, Benue (North-Central); Bauchi (NorthEast); Kaduna (North-West), Lagos, Ogun, Ekiti, Osun and Oyo (SouthWest); Edo and Rivers (SouthSouth); Enugu (South-East);
Interested Actors: Federal and State Governments, Federal/State Ministry of Health, National Center for Disease Control (NCDC), United Nations, National Primary Health Care Development Authority, World Health Organization, Nigeria Medical Association, National Association of Resident Doctors, Nigerian Private Sector Coalition, E-Health Africa, National/State Emergency Management Agencies, International Coordinating group on Vaccine
Nigeria is currently recording cases of the global pandemic-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) since its first detection in Wuhan, China, on December 8, 2019. Since then, the virus has spread across the globe with more than 809,608 confirmed cases reported in over 190 countries and territories. In addition, there is estimated fatality of 39,545 deaths and over 172,869 recoveries, as of March 31 2020.
In Nigeria, the first confirmed case of COVID-19 was detected on February 27, 2020, following the return of an Italian (male) to Lagos State on February 25, 2020, who fell ill in Ogun State. The index case and several other Nigerians who had travel history to the United Kingdom, Italy, United States, Spain, France, Germany, Canada, Netherlands and Greece, amongst others, with high risk of the virus, set off a chain of transmission that led to others contracting the virus in the country. According to the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), a total of one hundred and thirty-five (135) confirmed COVID-19 cases were reported including the discovery of six (6) cases found on an offshore supply vessel (oil rig)11 as of March 31, 2020 at 11.15am. Also, eight (8) infected persons recovered and have been discharged with two (2) fatalities. Out of the 135 confirmed cases, Lagos and Abuja-FCT accounted for the highest cases of 81 and 25 respectively, while Oyo State recorded 8 cases with Osun, Ogun and Kaduna States accounting for 5, 4 and 3 cases with 2 cases each in Bauchi, Enugu and Edo States. Also, Ekiti, Benue and Rivers States accounted for one (1) confirmed case each.
The steady increase in COVID-19 cases brings into consideration the inadequacies in the country’s healthcare system, which is plagued with underfunding, shortage of manpower and insufficient health infrastructures to cater for the huge population. This is likely to limit the capacity for mass testing to only suspected or confirmed cases. Moreover, the National Association of Resident Doctors (NARD) and the Medical & Dental Consultants Association of Nigeria (MDCAN) and Nurses and Midwives Association in Abuja-FCT, embarked on an industrial strike action on March 17, 2020 amid the spread of the virus, to protest Government’s failure to pay allowances and salaries since.
http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/nigeria-population/ 2 https://photos.state.gov/libraries/nigeria/487468/pdfs/Nigeria%20overview%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf 3 http://snisnet.net/MFLDSS/MFLDSS.php?source=4&snu=0&factype=0&owner=0&country=NG 4. https://www.premiumtimesng.com/health/health-features/361373-nigeria-budgets-n2000-for-the-healthcare-of-each-citizen-in-2020.html 5. https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/25/nigeria-covid-19-cases-rise 6 https://www.ncdc.gov.ng/themes/common/files/sitreps/bfd8f028748ff5ded5edc9c25308fdad.pdf 7. https://www.ecowas.int/institutions/west-african-health-organisation-waho/ 8 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/13/first-covid-19-case-happened-in-november-china-government-records-show-report 9 Coronavirus Global Cases Update (https://www.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6) Data retrieved on March 27, 2020. 10 https://ncdc.gov.ng/news/item/241/?t=frequently-asked-questions-on-coronavirus—15%2F03%2F2020 11 https://shipsandports.com.ng/6-covid-19-cases-recorded-on-offshore-supply-vessel/ 12
Coronavirus National Update: Data retrieved from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) on March 30, 2020. (ncdc.gov.ng) Situation Tracking is a periodic analytical report designed by WANEP through its National Early Warning System (NEWS) to monitor the changing trends of specific conflict threats as civil society support to peace and security in Nigeria 2 budget for the health sector. The year recorded a marginal increase in the overall budget from 424.03 billion naira in 2019. 4 This is abysmally low compared to the 15% World Health Organization (WHO) benchmark. According to the Nigeria Medical Association, the country has about 40,000 doctors to provide care for over 200,000 million populations. The WHO recommended physician to patient ratio is one doctor per 1,000 patients (1:1000), however, this is not obtainable in Nigeria.
Epidemics: Nigeria has recorded Lassa fever, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), Small Pox, Measles, Polio, Malaria, Tuberculosis, Cholera, Guinea worm, Cerebrospinal Meningitis epidemics, amongst others. Recently, the Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria has resulted in the fatality 161 people with 906 confirmed cases and 3735 suspected cases 6 across twenty-seven (27) States from January 1- March 15, 2020.
ECOWAS Health Infrastructure (West Africa Health Organization WAHO): A regional agency with the responsibility of safeguarding the health of the sub-region’s populace, enabling high-impact and cost-effective health interventions and programs including combating health problems, capacity building for health personnel and epidemiological surveillance in the sub- region. WAHO supports quality improvement of health systems, support for development of sustainable financing of health, amongst others. Provision (ICG), Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Doctors Without Borders, Security Agencies including the Nigerian Air Force, Nigerian Ports Authority, Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority, etc.
October 2019. Further intervention by the House of Representatives led to the call-off of the strike action a week later. These inadequacies have led to a growing concern among the populace as regards the nation’s ability to combat the pandemic. Currently, Nigeria is also burdened with the outbreak of Lassa fever that has resulted in the death of 161 people between January 1-March 15, 2020.
The temporary shutdown has created a disruption in academic and business activities, with fears of a national economic downturn which spurred panic buying in the country. This also led to a spike in the price of food items. Currently, the international crude oil prices recorded a decline as low as $20 per barrel on the international market14 compared to over $60 per barrel in January 2020. This depreciation occasioned by the global pandemic, has prompted the review of the 2020 national budget due to the decline in the prices of international oil market which has a direct impact on Nigeria’s economy.
RESPONSES • In response to curbing the spread of the pandemic, the Federal/State Governments have set up a number of containment measures and intensive communication campaigns on disease prevention and control measures including a self-isolation and social distance plan for incoming travellers and contact-tracing of suspected cases and persons who had contact with the initial cases. • Currently, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) have set up six (6) molecular laboratories in Lagos, Osun, Edo, Abuja-FCT, Oyo and Ebonyi States, with the capacity to test for COVID-19 with the inclusion of a Virology Laboratory of University College Hospital in the country16 . • The Government also undertook extensive documentation and health checks for passengers entering the country before the March 23, 2020 ban on international travels17. Since March 18, 2020, State Governments began shutting down schools and government offices with restrictions placed on religious, political and social gatherings. Other measures include;
https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news/2020/03/19/nigerian-doctors-strike-coronavirus 14 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Price_of_oil 15
Situation Tracking is a periodic analytical report designed by WANEP through its National Early Warning System (NEWS) to monitor the changing trends of specific conflict threats as civil society support to peace and security in Nigeria 3 fumigation of markets and public spaces18, provision of an economic stimulus package for vulnerable members to cushion the effect of the stay-home directives. Additionally, President Mohammadu Buhari has announced the cessation of all movements for 14 days in Lagos and Abuja-FCT due to the high number of COVID-19 cases with effect from March 30, 2020. This restriction also applies to Ogun State due to its close proximity to Lagos State.
- On March 30, 2020, President Muhammadu Buhari signed into law the COVID-19 Regulations 2020 to declare COVID-19 as a ‘dangerous infectious disease’. The regulation also gave legal backing to the various measures including, the restriction of movement in Lagos, Abuja-FCT and Ogun States and towards containing the spread of the pandemic in the country.
- The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control has also been providing daily updates on the epidemiological situation and its response21. This has contributed in preventing misinformation and rumour about the virus online. In addition, President Mohammadu Buhari has approved the release of 15 billion naira (40 million dollars) to contain the spread of COVID-19, capacity building for health workers and provision of critical health equipment across the country22. This was supported by banking industries, local and international humanitarians and other business leaders in the country.
- The practice of personal hygiene and social-distancing as part of the precautionary measures in combating the spread of COVID-19 may be challenging at Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camp and rural communities due to overcrowding of the camps, poor sanitation with limited or no access to basic amenities including water supply. For this reason, the Borno State Government has issued a ban on visitors to IDP camps in Borno State. This is also aimed at curbing the influx of displaced persons from neighboring West African countries (Chad and Cameroun) with recorded cases of COVID-19.
- The Federal, State and Local Governments should continue and sustain its technical support and collaboration with relevant agencies including health agencies, National/State Emergency Management Agencies, media, and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) to enhance their capacity to respond to health emergency situations and strengthen public education to mitigate the spread of the global coronavirus pandemic.
- The Federal/State Ministry of Health’s intervention with support from the World Health Organization and other health agencies in curbing COVID-19 spread is commendable, however, State governments should enhance its local coordination and surveillance system in rural communities for proactive response including training and re-training of health workers, while also investing in community health programs to curb the spread of the health risk.
- The Federal Government in partnership with the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) should accelerate measures to create more molecular laboratories with the capacity to test for COVID-19 in the North-West and North-East geo-political zones due to the population base of the country.
- It is also imperative for the Federal, State and Local Governments to enhance cooperation and collaboration to ensure synergy and coherence in response strategies to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 at all level of political administrations of the country.
18 https://thesourceng.com/breaking-lagos-begins-fumigation-of-markets-against-covid-19/ 19 https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/covid-19-sanwo-olu-rolls-out-economic-stimulus-for-residents.html 20 https://www.africanews.com/2020/03/31/nigeria-confirms-third-coronavirus-case-index-patient-fully-recovers/ 21 https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/25/nigeria-covid-19-cases-rise 22 https://www.channelstv.com/2020/03/26/breaking-14-new-cases-of-covid-19-confirmed/ 23 https://thenationonlineng.net/borno-bans-visits-to-idp-camps/